Category: Gender Bias

Why Confidence Matters

When you work really hard to gain expertise in your field, you want to believe that your competence will earn you extra stripes and higher level positions. Turns out it’s confidence, more than competence, that makes the bigger difference. More than mere bravado, authentic confidence comes from believing in your competence, trusting your abilities, having faith in your instincts, and conquering the fear of failure.

Many women lack the same level of confidence and self-esteem that men have. While some level of explanation may be rooted in physiological differences, most of it is social. In a 2015 study on Age and Gender Difference in Self Esteem, Wiebke Bleidorn and her research team studied nearly one million subjects from 48 nations. They found that worldwide, men systematically have higher levels of self-esteem than women, and that self-esteem increases with age from adolescence to adulthood. What is surprising about their study is this: the confidence gap between men and women is actually higher in industrialized, western, more egalitarian countries than in developing countries. How can we explain that?

It seems to me that in countries where women’s equality is guaranteed by law and where women  expect to be treated as equals, the blow to self-esteem is much greater when women experience inequality, unconscious bias, and harassment.

So how can women overcome these deeply seated sociocultural norms to regain their confidence and self-esteem? Dr. Sharon Melnick is a leading authority on business psychology, stress resilience, and women’s leadership. According to Melnick, there are three main patterns that affect confidence levels:

  1. Seeking Approval

  2. Preventing Disapproval

  3. Looping Self/Other Criticism

To rise above these patterns, we have to understand why we do them and be willing to move from what Melnick calls a “confidence seeker” to a “confidence contributor.” Once we can make the shift from looking to others for our confidence, we can begin to gain confidence from the true value of our contributions.

Dr. Melnick is a preferred facilitator for Momentum’s executive leadership class. This year Momentum is hosting a leadership series open to the community, and this week Dr. Melnick will conduct her “Confidence When it Counts” workshop January 16, 2019 at Samford University. 

 

Equality on Independence Day

Photo courtesy of Ishtodo

Reflecting on our celebration of independence on this 4th of July holiday, let’s remember that the Declaration of Independence is predicated first and foremost on the premise of equality.  Now in our 242nd year since that declaration was signed, many groups of people in this country that should be governed “for the people, by the people” are still woefully under-represented in public office, still suffer social injustice, and experience profound economic inequalities. That said, our history shows progress. Among the legislative milestones:

  • Abolition of slavery, 1865
  • African-American (male) right to vote, 1870
  • Women’s right to vote, 1920
  • Civil Rights Act, 1964
  • Equal Rights Amendment, 1972*
  • Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990

Of these milestones, it is worth noting that only the Equal Rights Amendment, which guarantees the “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex,” has failed to become law. The ERA was reintroduced before Congress in 1982, and has been introduced again every year since then. Passage of the ERA requires a 2/3 majority vote in Congress and ratification by at least 38 states.  In May of this year, Illinois became the 37th state to ratify the ERA, although five states who previously ratified it have rescinded their ratification. The struggle is real!

Opposition to the ERA is largely based on the argument that the proposed language would eradicate much of the “protection of women” under current law. Chief among these, and the most inflammatory in our political climate, is the argument that passage of the ERA would be used to roll back current restrictions on abortion, the role of women in combat, the separation of public restrooms/locker rooms, etc. Each of these is political speculation, but certainly effective in suppressing ratification.

Some believe that the protection of women is already guaranteed under the 14th Amendment. Whether you agree with that or believe that the ERA should be ratified and signed into law, the debate underscores the great extent to which men in power, whether for or against ratification, are still making the decisions on what women can and cannot do for their livelihood, their families, and their health.

Evidence that women are far from equal in this country abounds:

We clearly have a lot of work to do to advance women in leadership and to shape policy that will protect women, their families, and the economic outlook for our country. In the next month, Momentum will present a new three-year strategic plan to our Board of Directors. Together we can greatly improve conditions for the women in our state through engaging men in determining policy, developing leadership in emerging women leaders, collecting the data to show our problem areas and progress going forward, and unifying our strength as women leaders in service to our communities.

Happy Independence Day.

 

The ABCs of Breaking Bias

I recently attended a lecture hosted by the Athena Collective entitled the ABCs of Breaking Bias. The guest speaker was Dr. Stefanie Johnson, from the University of Colorado at Boulder. This is such an important topic, because understanding unconscious bias, and how we can keep it in check, is fundamental to getting the best talent to take on the challenges in our companies, organizations and communities.

I was glad to see that the audience was made up of men and women of many ethnic backgrounds and ages. Dr. Johnson helped us all to see that unconscious bias is in all of us. It is primal, rooted in the tendency of humans to observe the world around them and unconsciously use the data collected to make thousands of micro-decisions every day–decisions that may or may not be sound, depending on that individual’s experiences. Women exhibit gender bias just as men do. Minorities make biased decisions based on race each day. No one can be totally free of unconscious bias, but Dr. Johnson presented four easy ways to rein it in with her “ABCs” of breaking bias:

A is for Admit it. As mentioned above, we all exhibit unconscious bias, so let’s just admit it without blame or shame. I would add to the A-list two more words: raise awareness when you observe unconscious bias and address it.

B is for Blind it. The Boston Symphony became the poster-child for blinding unconscious bias when it began using blind auditions in an effort to test gender bias on its hiring of musicians. They started by holding auditions behind a curtain, and even went so far as to have musicians remove their shoes, since the clicking of women’s heels even tipped off the hiring committee as to their gender. The result ? The blind auditions increased a woman’s chances of moving past the first audition by 50%, and accounts for 30% of female new hires, according to a research study in the American Economic Review. Similar “blinding actions” can be taken by companies, educational institutions, and healthcare professionals by removing names and other bias-tipping factors from resumes, reviews, records and recommendations.

C is for Count it. What gets measured gets done, so if we can quantify how unconscious bias negatively affects our workplaces, we can make the case for change. For example, tracking metrics on the diversity of candidates before and after implementing blind screening practices can be a great way to demonstrate that unconscious bias exists. It’s equally important to show data to motivate policy makers to  invest in a more diverse talent pool. Fortunately, an increasing number of reliable research studies point to strong correlations between diversity positive key performance indicators.

S is for Support it. Humans find safety in sameness, so human nature causes us to surround ourselves with people like us. Yet we know that it’s the diversity of any ecosystem that defines its strength and longevity. Workplaces, educational institutions, and communities are no exception. One of the most frequently cited studies supporting diversity is Why Diversity Matters from McKinsey & Company. While the study asserts that the link between diversity and high performance is a correlation, and not necessarily causation, there is a very strong, logical case that diversity gets more talent to the table and helps teams avoid “group think” in important decisions.

Even if we stop short of making sweeping organizational changes to address unconscious bias, each on of us can check our own biases on a daily basis. For example, when describing a person, how often do you include details about gender, race, or age, even when they are absolutely irrelevant to your story? Double-check that you are not somehow implying something unintentional. Consider the images conjured in your mind when you read the following:

  • I was behind this old guy parking his car.
  • I was behind this woman parking her car.
  • I was behind this black man parking his car.
  • I was behind a business man parking his car.

Based on the fact that the speaker qualified who was parking the car, we immediately form a stereotype of the story to follow. Having qualified who was parking the car may reinforce the unconscious bias that an old person, woman, or black man would not park a car as well as the business man, when in fact, those things have nothing to do with that individuals ability to park a car. Why not simply say, “I was behind this person parking their car and noticed that the gas cap was open.”

Admit bias, blind it, count it and support efforts to counter it. Dr. Johnson’s “ABCs” for breaking bias are great building blocks for more diversity in our workplaces and communities.

 

 

 

Women on Boards

April Benetollo, CEO Momentum

One of the goals on my personal development plan when I was in Momentum was to serve on a nonprofit board. I had no prior board experience, but with the encouragement of my co-mentoring group and a little networking I easily found my way. I realized within a few board meetings that I could have, and should have, pursued the board opportunity earlier. Nonprofits, schools, universities and small businesses can all benefit from a diverse board to advise, strategize, and get things done. The board members benefit too. My board service at Children’s of Alabama committee for the future, TechBirmingham, TechAlabama, UAB’s Collat School of Business Sales and Marketing, and UAB’s School of Engineering IEM board, has enriched my life in three ways:

  1. Expanded my network. Through board service I’ve gotten to know close to one hundred local professionals. I make a habit of connecting with them on LinkedIn. I can rely on this network as a sounding board for new ideas, make connections between people with similar business interests, and get feedback when I have a particular issue or question.
  2. Gained confidence. No matter how confident I think I am, I still can have that little voice inside that wonders if I really know what I think I know. Testing your ideas and strategy at the board level is very validating, because your fellow board members are smart, they are equally committed to the cause, and more objective than traditional co-workers.
  3. Made great friends. By volunteering for projects and committees I have gotten to know quite a few fellow board members on a personal level, and those friendships live on. My career and family do not leave a lot of time for forging new friendships, so uncovering these as a result of board service has been a real bonus.

One thing I have noticed is the lack of women on boards. I’ve also noticed that sometimes the women at the table do not volunteer their ideas as often as the men, particularly if there are a lot more men than women at the table. I’ve read a lot of studies and stats on women and board service and it boils down to this: women are half the US population, women earn 57% of bachelor’s degrees, 62% of masters degrees, and 53% of Phd, medical and law degrees. Representation by women on boards in the United States–whether you look at public, private, nonprofit, or particular industries–is generally below 20%.

There are many reasons behind the gender gap at the board level. Board seats usually go to individuals who hold top positions in their organizations, the positions just beyond the proverbial glass ceiling. Unconscious bias (something men and women have) in hiring, managing and promoting women throughout their careers is a primary contributing factor. Women are also tapped out, since they often have to work harder to be recognized at work, and also carry more of the load at home, particularly working mothers.

The good news is that we see a lot more data in the last few years about the benefits of a diverse board, including gender diversity, for boards of directors. We’ll be exploring this topic during our “Women on Corporate Boards” session, with facilitator Major General Lee Price and four outstanding panelists at the  Momentum Leadership Conference in February. I look forward to posting some insights from that panel in March. Stay tuned.

Affecting Change to Eradicate Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Holly Moore, Marketing Intern

In light of the multitude of recent reports regarding sexual harassment, we need more than conversations on the topic. We need actions that can eradicate comments and activities of this nature from the workplace. With so many of these scandals in the news, we know the problem is pervasive and transcends industry, age, race, religion, geography, and economic class . Recently there has been a reaction on Twitter regarding these events with the #metoo movement. Many individuals had the courage to share their personal experiences of sexual abuse, harassment, and impropriety, which has encouraged others to follow suit in coming forward. Now we need to turn talk into action to make the workplace a safe environment where everyone can bring their “best selves” to work.

According to the American Association of University Women (AAUW) sexual harrassment generally “describes unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature,” but it is not limited to that. It is also a pattern of improper belittling tones, sexist comments, subtle actions, or a hostile, sexualized work environment. Part of this definition comes from a recent article, which also includes the following tips for victims.

Credit Image: © Frank May

For the individual dealing with sexual harassment in a work environment:

In the wake of much criticism of the women coming forward– “why now?” and ” how can she prove it?”– we need more conversation about why it’s so hard for victims to come forward. Many victims fear career suicide; they cannot afford losing their jobs or the retaliation that they may receive while fighting for their rights. According to Kathy Caprino, CEO of Fairygoddess, on top of retaliation, there is also the bystander effect (meaning others were watching and did not take action therefore the victim does not feel that their experience will be heard) as well as the influence and pressure of a male-dominated culture.
Here are a few tips for the individual who is the target of sexual harassment:

1. Record every incident (even if the actions on their own seem small and seemingly unimportant) and all the details of who was involved, when and what occurred. Make sure to write them down in a non-work device, so that you will have them in case you are let go without warning.
2. Follow your company’s formal complaint channel, but act quickly. Many lawyers say that victims wait too long to come forward and their cases become time-barred.
3. The complaint channel activates “the company’s legal obligation to do a prompt, thorough investigation, make findings, protect the victim and punish the perpetrator. If that does not solve the problem and there’s more sexual harassment and if there is retaliation, which is illegal, then she [or he] needs to reach out to a lawyer,” says Caprino. Most lawyers provide a free initial (confidential) consultation that will inform the victim of their rights.
For the bystander
 
“Everyone knew. But no one said anything,” is how John Baldoni, an executive coach and educator, began his article on the subject, which seems to be a theme in most workplaces. According to Baldoni “silence equals complicity” because in most cases the harasser is not the only one aware of what is occurring. This is not simply a corporate level issue; individuals also have responsibility in these situations. Baldoni explains how currently there are few prevention answers. Either the victim can complain to HR (where the complaint will most likely never be addressed) or they can talk and engage in conversations about it, but neither of these actions are a sufficient response. Neither of them affect any kind of change. So Baldoni shares helpful tips for the individual seeking change.
1. Hold each other accountable as individuals to stand up and protect one another.
2. Believe the victim and take the complaints seriously, whether you have the power to do anything about it or not according to this article about how to navigate sexual harassment in the work place.
3. Don’t engage in sexist jokes. Draw the line; show your coworkers you don’t put up with those ideals and attitudes.
 
For companies that want to be better about sexual harassment policies:
 
Victor Lipman, executive coach and author, wrote in an article  saying that “companies should be preventers, not enablers” of these kinds of behaviors. While there are many discussions regarding whether or not non-disclosure agreements regarding this topic should be legal, there are actions that companies need to take to mitigate the problem.
1. Make a policy regarding the issue and publish it for all employees to see. Baldoni says to make it as clear as possible during new hire training so that they know without a doubt what the policy is.
2. Make it a zero-tolerance policy. One-strike, you’re out.
3. For the HR department and management, do more than simply create a new policy in a rule book. Discuss these policies so employees know that they carry weight.
4. While anti-retaliation policies are illegal, ensure that everyone at your company explicitly knows this.
5. Remove mandatory employee arbitration clauses (they are illegal and forbid lawsuits) but they also silence victims and they protect sexual offenders.
In order for the culture to change, adjustments have to be made on every level of a company from every policy that is made to every employee’s actions to the CEO’s actions and opinions to a company’s newest hire. While there are many different ways to accomplish this, Dana Walden, chairman and CEO of Fox Television Group, said that “There must be women in the highest ranks on every corporate board. Our recruiting and our training has to be oriented to ensure that we’re identifying and nurturing future generations of female leaders.”

Middle-School View On Glass Ceiling

April Benetollo, Momentum

A student at my daughter’s middle school interviewed me yesterday for a research paper on the proverbial glass ceiling. As I answered her questions, I couldn’t help thinking about where her generation will find glass ceilings. According to a joint study by Deloitte and the American Alliance for Board Diversity, the total number of women on Fortune 100 boards of directors increased from 16.9% in 2004 to 23% in 2016. That’s a very modest gain given the emphasis on diversity in the last decade. And those are the biggest corporations in America.

photo cred: Elle.com

As you get into the Fortune 500, Fortune 1000 and beyond, the numbers look much worse. At this rate, gender parity at the board of directors level won’t happen in the Fortune 100 until my daughter and her friend are 27 years old. And the chances of parity further down the corporate chain are even further off.

The key to change is awareness for the powers that be, and getting that awareness to translate into changes in training and policy across the organization.

The factors that contribute to the glass ceiling are complex. Here are three of the top issues I see as contributing to barriers that prevent women from those top executive positions.

  1. People in power tend to recruit, train, and promote people who look, think and behave the way they do. This well-known sociological pattern is at the root of why white men, who have been in power for centuries, select young males similar to themselves to mentor, sponsor, train and promote.
  2. Sociological behavior is slow to evolve. Women gained the right to vote less than 100 years ago. Many employment practices, pay policies, and bank lending rules unfairly discriminated against women for decades (some persist today.) For instance, until The Women’s Business Ownership Act of 1988,  a woman still had to have a man present at the bank to co-sign for a business loan in many states.
  3. Implicit bias is a frequent occurrence the workplace, politics, education, and even healthcare. Implicit bias affects many groups, and is often based on gender, race, age, sexual orientation, or religious beliefs. Women often need to prove themselves more than men, due to the implicit bias that they are inferior. Women are often passed over for choice projects or promotions due to the bias that they cannot handle the work. Women that do manage to reach positions near the top are often perceived as ruthless, bossy, or power-hungry for the same hardball behavior as their male counterparts when tough decisions must be made. In hiring, education, and healthcare there are many studies that show that simply changing the names of the applicants from female to male dramatically increases their chances of getting admitted to an interview, a school, or a health study.

Men and women at the top perpetuate the policies that lead to a glass ceiling (yes, women at the top can be as guilty of discriminating practices as their male counterparts.) Men and women in positions of power must work together to:

  • understand the issues
  • provide training
  • shape policies

that ensure that their best talent, regardless of gender, makes it to the top!

 

Myth-Busters About Equal Pay

April Benetollo, Dir. Marketing & Development, Momentum

Bring up the topic of equal pay, and you’re likely to be met with a host of arguments as to why the whole gender pay gap is a myth. We all know when you compile research upon research there are many variables. These variables leave open windows for those who don’t agree to shoot holes.

But there are so many valid studies on the gender pay gap, it’s hard to refute that it exists, even if it’s not a simple number. It’s worth a dive into some of the research and societal pressures that fuel the debate.

First let’s outline the top myths on the gender pay gap.

 

Myth #1: Women choose lower paying jobs.

Some women may indeed “choose” lower paying jobs because they need the flexibility due to a partner with a demanding career, or because they are single mothers, or because family care requires it. That may account for some of the disparity in studies that do not isolate for equal pay for equal work. But there are numerous studies that control for factors like age, education, experience, and performance and still the gap persists. This research on medical professions found that male doctors earn $200,000 more on average than their female peers, even if they have the same specialty, experience, and education. In a recent analysis by Glassdoor, one of the largest job recruiting sites, the company concluded:

“Based on more than 505,000 salaries shared by full-time U.S. employees on Glassdoor, men earn 24.1 percent higher base pay than women on average. In other words, women earn about 76 cents per dollar men earn. However, comparing workers with similar age, education and years of experience shrinks that gap to 19.2 percent. Further, comparing workers with the same job title, employer and location, the gender pay gap in the U.S. falls to 5.4 percent (94.6 cents per dollar).”

The gap narrows to just a nickel when you control for same title, employer, and location? So what’s the big deal? Well, that’s more than $130,000 over the course of a career for someone making an average of $65,000. How many men would voluntarily sign up for that?

Equal Pay Advocate, Lilly Ledbetter

Myth #2: Women are a protected class, so employers can’t pay them less.

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 made it illegal to pay women less than men. Yet, it still happens. First, transparency regarding salary is discouraged in most workplaces. Many women who play by their employer’s rules will never know if they are being paid less than men for the same job. Second, women would have to confront their manager about uneven pay, a courageous act that can result in retaliation. Third, in order to enforce the Equal Pay Act, a woman would have to take her employer to court– an unpleasant journey for all involved. We have Alabama native and Momentum honoree Lilly Ledbetter to thank for getting rid of the 180-day statute of limitations for wage-related claims. That means if you do file a claim and the court decides in your favor, you can pursue damages for all of your years of employment, not just the last 6 months.

 

Myth #3: Women make less than men because they leave careers to have families.

While some women do leave their careers to have children, employers should not presume that all women will have children or that a woman will be unable to balance a demanding job just as well as her colleagues who are fathers. According to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, 70% of women with children work. Another study by the Pew Research Center shows that 40% of women with children who work are the sole or primary bread winners for their family. Pair that with the fact that nearly 48% of women between 15 and 44 do not have children. Yet our society still leans towards paying men more when they have children, the so-called “father bonus”, based on stereotypes we have of men being the breadwinner for the family. Those same societal norms impose a “motherhood penalty” on women regardless of whether they have children, plan to have children, or never have children.

Top 3 Takeaways from Keynote

Highlights from Dr. Foust-Cummings Keynote on Men and Women Leading Together

On Thursday, March 16th, 2017, Dr. Foust-Cummings addressed Momentum’s sold-out event of 500 women and men. Here are our top three takeaways from the presentation:

1.    When people feel like an “other,” companies lose talent and value.

Dr. Foust-Cummings described being an “other” as having characteristics that set them apart from the dominant group, which results in feeling like they do not belong. Anyone can feel like an “other” based on gender, race, sexual orientation, disability, religion, etc.–this keynote focuses on gender. People who feel like “others” are more likely to be in lower ranks, receive fewer promotions, and downsize their career aspirations. The result is a loss of talent and the loss of value that diverse perspectives bring to the workplace. However, it doesn’t have to be this way. Together we can create workplaces where everyone is valued.

2.    Engaging men is a critical pathway to inclusive workplaces.

When men are aware of the exclusion experienced by “others” they can become part of the solution to create more inclusive workplaces. Men are the key stakeholders in most workplaces, yet less than half of men think of gender-stereotyping as a barrier to women’s advancement, and many others fear reverse discrimination. However, the more men were aware of gender bias, the more likely they were to say that achieving gender equality is important. Dr. Foust-Cummings presented three ways to develop awareness of gender inequality:
1) willingness to define success factors outside of masculine norms,
2) exposure to women mentors, and 3) creating fair play policies.

3.    Individually, we can take steps toward a more inclusive workplace environment.

Men can: tell their male peers about commitment to a gender-inclusive workplace, listen and validate the experiences of women colleagues, sponsor an emerging woman leader, get involved in a community that advocates gender-equality (for instance, Catalyst’s online community, MARC, www.onthemarc.org)

Women can: mentor a man, engage in open dialogue with men on gender issues, get involved in a community that advocates gender-equality.

People, businesses, and communities thrive when there is a mutual sense of belonging. Let’s not be afraid to talk about the need for inclusive workplaces. It’s the critical first step to making sure our most talented people reach the top.

Photo credit: Bang Images

Look Who’s Coming for Breakfast

This is the first Momentum breakfast where we have actively promoted the event to men. That’s because it’s important for men to be part of the solution to the imbalances that exist when it comes to leadership. Sometimes we are asked why women need their own leadership program. In simple terms, women make up half of the population, but have only about 20% representation in areas of leadership. The business and economic impact affects everyone. The reasons for the disparity are complex, and the solutions will take require men and women to work together to change.

There are many challenges stemming from culture and past history that are not unique to women, yet they are almost universally experienced by women. These challenges impact everyone, not just women.

Men who work with women, manage teams with women, are sons of working women, are married to working women, or who have a customer base of women (which covers just about everyone) are all impacted when those same women earn less, are recognized less, are promoted less, or purchase less because society values them less. 

Earlier this week a woman in our current Momentum class shared an interesting story that illustrates my point. The story covers Martin Schneider, a guy who simply switched his email signature with a female co-worker for a couple of weeks. You can read her blog post about it here, or  his Twitter moment here. After two weeks of having to work twice as hard to earn credibility from clients in order to get anything done, @SchneiderRemarks tweets “I was in hell…”

This is precisely the type of discussion we hope to hear at the breakfast this Thursday. The more we open ourselves to the discussion, the faster we can find solutions that will help better our businesses, communities, and economy.

 

Making Merit-Based Systems Work

Kayleigh is a college sophomore and marketing intern at Momentum.

Companies often champion meritocracy, touting promotion and reward based solely on good work. The commitment to meritocracy is often used to justify a lack of policies that support diversity. If people are evaluated for their skills, abilities, and merit alone, then factors such as gender and race should not contribute to executive decision making. However, merit-driven systems often trigger biases instead of preventing them.

Our last few blog posts focused on bias in the workplace in regards to gender, ethnicity, and age– emphasizing the importance of removing biases and leading together so businesses leverage top talent for maximum results. This topic will be further explored during Momentum’s biennial breakfast with keynote speaker Dr. Heather Foust-Cummings.

Emilio J. Castilla, a professor at MIT’s Sloan School of Management, researched how meritocratic ideals play out in organizations…and reached some unexpected conclusions. In Castilla’s analysis, women, ethnic minorities, and non-US-born employees received a smaller increase in compensation compared with white men, despite holding the same jobs, working in the same units, having the same supervisors, the same human capital, and importantly, receiving the same performance score.

Upon further research with Indiana University sociology professor Stephen Bernard, each experiment found that in companies emphasizing meritocratic values, those in managerial positions awarded a larger monetary reward to the male employee than to an equally performing female employee. Castilla and Bernard termed their counter-intuitive result “the paradox of meritocracy.”

The concept of meritocracy can work, but it requires equal attention to training, systems and policies to make sure that implicit biases are not working against the merit-based practices. When executives implement a merit-based performance system, they tend to lose focus on biased decisions that may also come into play. When companies implement a merit-based system alongside training and policies to prevent implicit biases, they see positive outcomes.

After five years, Emilio J. Castilla reanalyzed data after a company created a performance-reward committee to monitor compensation increases and sharing information with top management about pay broken down by gender, race, and foreign nationality. The demographic pay gap disappeared.

The collection and analysis of data on people-related processes and outcomes–termed “people analytics”– is key to enabling companies to identify and correct workplace biases. Building awareness among managers about how implicit bias can affect their “merit-based” evaluations is key to retaining the best top talent. True meritocracy is then possible, allowing the most productive and efficient employees to rise to the top.